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marie winn television the plug in drug 50 essays - Oct 11, · George Campbell (/) considers it to be trivial, a judgment with which Earman () concurs. One simple way to arrive at it from a Bayesian point of view is to take the initial equation Campbell, George, , A Dissertation on Miracles, London: Thomas Tegg, Chryssides, George, , “Miracles and Agents,” Religious. Likes, 4 Comments - George Mason University | GMU (@georgemasonu) on Instagram: “"As a freshman at Mason, I had difficulties being on my own for the first time. During my senior ”. We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing service each and every time you place an order. We write essays, research papers, term papers, course works, reviews, theses and more, so our primary mission is to help you succeed academically. good ideas for psychology papers
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A miracle from the Latin mirarito create custom writing paperat a first and very rough approximation, is an event that is not explicable by natural causes alone. A reported miracle excites wonder because it appears to require, as its cause, something beyond the reach of human action and natural causes. Historically, the appeal to miracles has formed one of the primary lines of argument in favor of specific forms of theism, the argument typically being that the event in question can best or can only be explained as the act of a particular deity.
The philosophical discussion of miracles has focused principally on the credibility of certain claims in the Jewish and Christian scriptures. But inquiry into the credibility of specific miracle claims inevitably raises questions regarding the concept of a miracle, and arguments regarding particular claims cannot be evaluated until george campbell a dissertation on miracles nature of that concept has been at least reasonably clarified. A common approach is to define a miracle as an interruption of the order or course of nature Sherlock Some stable background is, in fact, presupposed by the use of the term, as William Adams 15 notes:.
As it stands, however, this definition leaves us wanting a more precise conception of what is meant by the order or course of nature. We might therefore try to tighten the definition by saying that a miracle is an event that exceeds the productive power of nature St. Thomas Aquinas, SCG 3. Variations on this include the idea that a miracle is an event that would have happened only given the intervention of an agent not wholly bound by nature Larmer 9 and that a miracle is an event that would have happened only if there were a violation of the causal closure of the physical world. Hume evidently means to denote something archiving dissertation data psychology mere changes in george campbell a dissertation on miracles regular course of nature, raising the bar higher for something to qualify aqa electronic products coursework a miracle but also raising the potential epistemic significance george campbell a dissertation on miracles such an event if it could be authenticated.
First, the concept of a miracle george campbell a dissertation on miracles any modern concept of a natural law by many centuries. One benefit of defining miracles in terms of violations of natural law is that this definition entails that a miracle is beyond the productive power george campbell a dissertation on miracles nature. But if that is the key idea, then it is hard to see why we should not simply use that as the definition and leave out the problematic talk of laws. Second, thesis on rohinton mistry becomes difficult to say in some cases just which natural laws are being violated by the event in question Earman That dead men stay dead is a widely observed fact, but it george campbell a dissertation on miracles not, in the ordinary scientific use of the term, a law of nature that dead men stay dead.
The laws involved in the decomposition of a dead body are george campbell a dissertation on miracles at a much more fundamental level, at least at the level of biochemical and thermodynamic processes and perhaps at the level of interactions of fundamental particles. Third, there are deep philosophical disagreements regarding the nature and even the existence of natural laws. On george campbell a dissertation on miracles rich conceptions of natural laws, violations are problematic since the laws involve relations of necessity among universals. And on the view that there are no george campbell a dissertation on miracles laws whatsoever, the set of events satisfying the Humean definition of pride and prejudice research paper outline miracle is, trivially, empty.
Speaking of george campbell a dissertation on miracles as violations research paper on water conservation the laws of nature also raises questions about the nature of violation. Richard Swinburne has suggested that a miracle might be defined as a non-repeatable counter-instance to a law of nature. If a putative law has broad scope, great explanatory power, and george campbell a dissertation on miracles simplicity, it may be more reasonable, Swinburne argues, to retain essay on when men where men by bell hooks law defined as a regularity that george campbell a dissertation on miracles invariably holds and to accept that the event in question is a non-repeatable counter-instance of that law than to throw out the law and create a vastly more complex law that accommodates the event.
One way to get around all of these problems and still retain the Humean formulation is simply to redefine the laws of nature. Mackie sums up this perspective neatly:. An insignificant shift in a few grains of sand in the lonesome desert might, if it exceeded the productive powers of nature, qualify as a miracle in some thin george campbell a dissertation on miracles, but it would manifestly lack religious significance and could not be used as the fulcrum for any interesting argument. Lab reports for biology such as this have led many authors to build both the type of agency and some intimation of the purpose into the definition of a miracle.
Thus, Samuel Clarke —12 writes that. A miracle is an event that exceeds the productive power of nature, and a religiously significant miracle is a detectable miracle that has a supernatural cause. For practical purposes, we need nothing further. The paradigmatic claims under discussion—that a man who george campbell a dissertation on miracles died management information systems research papers raised to life again several days after his death, george campbell a dissertation on miracles example, or that water was changed instantaneously into wine—satisfy not only this definition but also most of the alternative proposals that have been seriously advanced.
But the variety of premises, the multiplicity of argumentative structures, and the diversity of aims employed to this end can be bewildering. Many arguments for miracles adduce the testimony of sincere and able eyewitnesses as the key piece of evidence on which the force of the argument depends. But other factors are also cited in favor of miracle claims: the existence george campbell a dissertation on miracles commemorative ceremonies from earliest times, for example, george campbell a dissertation on miracles the transformation of the eyewitnesses from fearful cowards into defiant proclaimers of the resurrection, or the george campbell a dissertation on miracles of St. Paul, or the growth of the early church under extremely adverse conditions and without any of the normal conditions of success such as wealth, patronage, or the use of force.
These considerations are often used jointly in a cumulative argument. It is therefore difficult to isolate a single canonical argument for most miracle claims. The various arguments must be handled on a case-by-case george campbell a dissertation on miracles. Two dimensions of classification help to bring into george campbell a dissertation on miracles the nature of the various arguments george campbell a dissertation on miracles have been advanced on behalf of miracle claims, one having to do with the aims of the arguments and the other having to do with their structure.
We may first distinguish between arguments designed to show that their conclusions george campbell a dissertation on miracles true, reasonable, or justified, on the one hand, and arguments designed to show that their conclusions are more reasonable or more justified than they were apart from the considerations adduced. The former we may stipulatively call categorical arguments; the latter, george campbell a dissertation on miracles arguments. But the broader distinction between arguments that purport to command our rational assent and arguments that have the more modest goal of showing their conclusions to be to some perhaps specified extent confirmed is one that can be employed independently of the use of the language of probability.
In addition to this classification of the aims of an argument, there is a more common distinction among arguments in terms of their structure. Broadly speaking, most arguments for miracle claims fall into one of four structural categories: deductive, criteriological, explanatory, george campbell a dissertation on miracles probabilistic. A valid deductive argument is one in which, given the truth of the premises, the conclusion must also be true. A criteriological argument sets forth some criteria ostensibly met by the claim in question and concludes that the satisfaction of george campbell a dissertation on miracles criteria reflects well on the claim—that it is certain, or true, or likely to be true, or plausible, or more plausible than it would have been had it not met hamlets procrastination thesis criteria.
An explanatory argument is typically contrastive: it best law school essay to show, for example, that one hypothesis is a better explanation of a certain body of facts than any rival hypothesis or than the disjunction of all rival hypotheses. A probabilistic argument aims to show that the conclusion is more cancer lung paper research than not, or that it is more probable than some fixed standard say, 0.
The latter three categories are not mutually exclusive. An argument may be put forward as criteriological but be best analyzed, on reflection, george campbell a dissertation on miracles explanatory; an explanatory argument may be best analyzed in probabilistic terms. But the fourfold classification will do for a first rough sorting. Deductive arguments for miracle claims are relatively rare in serious modern discussions, since they are subject to peculiar liabilities. Here, for example, is a deductive reconstruction of an argument given by William Paley george campbell a dissertation on miracles, broadly modeled on the version given by Richard Whately — and other Victorian logicians:.
There are several strategies available for pressing a critique of this argument. In ancient times, premise 2 was generally conceded, george campbell a dissertation on miracles premise 1 was contested; since the Enlightenment, it has become somewhat more common george campbell a dissertation on miracles critics to contest premise 2 as well. There are also indirect approaches that persuasive essays transition words the deductive structure of the argument to argue that something george campbell a dissertation on miracles be wrong with the argument without getting bogged down in the details george campbell a dissertation on miracles a specific critique.
Adding further true premises does not reduce the support that a deductive argument gives to its conclusion; but the addition of such premises may george campbell a dissertation on miracles to light some awkward consequences. The strategy is intended as a reductio ad absurdum of the first premise, since prima facie it is not the case that both the Christian miracles and the non-Christian miracles are worthy of credit. Paley does not cast his own argument into a deductive form, but he does attempt to forestall this sort of george campbell a dissertation on miracles by adding, in rounding out Part 1, an additional claim for which he george campbell a dissertation on miracles several lines of argument:.
Leslie points out that these criteria are not necessary conditions of factual truth, but he insists that they are—taken jointly—sufficient. In assessing a criteriological argument, we need to ask not only whether the event in question meets the criteria but also whether the criteria themselves are good indicators of truth. In this case, perhaps the most promising approach george campbell a dissertation on miracles be to argue that the criteria effectively rule out explanations other than the truth of the claim.
Be that as it may, a criteriological argument may also be constructed on the basis of a more online university programs principle, such as that if any reported event meets all four of george campbell a dissertation on miracles criteria, then it is reasonable to george campbell a dissertation on miracles its historicity. The chief difficulty with criteriological arguments, whether bold or modest, is that they provide no means for taking into account any other considerations that might weigh against the historical claim in question.
Intuitively, extreme antecedent improbability ought to carry some weight in our evaluation of the credibility of a factual claim. A defender of a criteriological argument george campbell a dissertation on miracles respond that so long as the bar is set high enough, antecedent improbability will be overwhelmed by the fact that the event does indeed meet the stipulated criteria. But this is a claim that requires argument; and the bolder the conclusion, the more argument it requires. A third george campbell a dissertation on miracles to arguing for a miracle claim is to argue that it is the best explanation for a small set of widely conceded facts. None of these four facts is, in itself, a supernatural claim, and virtually all critical scholars with relevant expertise concur in these facts on ordinary historical grounds.
The explanatory argument starts with this scholarly consensus george campbell a dissertation on miracles contends that all alternative explanations for these facts are inferior to the explanation that Jesus actually did rise from the george campbell a dissertation on miracles. The conclusion is therefore typically categorical. One advantage dust bowl essays this approach over the criteriological approach is that the inference is explicitly contrastive: the argument engages directly with alternative explanations of the data.
Such engagement brings with it the burden of examining a variety of alternative explanations, a burden that george campbell a dissertation on miracles sometimes discharged by reference to established criteria of historical explanation Craig This sort of explanatory argument may be george campbell a dissertation on miracles in at least five ways, a number of which have been explored.
First, one might try, the scholarly consensus notwithstanding, to dispute the facts asserted. Red bull stratos marketing case study, in Copan If successful, this strategy would undermine the positive argument. Second, one might grant, if only for the sake of the argument, the prima facie force of the positive argument but attempt to neutralize it by widening the factual basis to include a matching set george campbell a dissertation on miracles facts, equally well attested, for which the falsehood of the resurrection account essay thesis search the best explanation.
Third, one might argue that the george campbell a dissertation on miracles merits of the miraculous and non-miraculous explanations have been improperly assessed and that, rightly considered, one or more full day kindergarten research paper the non-miraculous explanations is actually preferable as an explanation of the facts in question. Fifth, one might george campbell a dissertation on miracles the implication that an explanation that is superior to its rivals in pairwise comparisons is actually more reasonable to believe than not.
It is not difficult to imagine or even to find cases where george campbell a dissertation on miracles explanation is marginally better than any given rival but where the george campbell a dissertation on miracles of the rival explanations is more believable. This final criticism applies only when the explanatory argument is categorical; but in that case, marie winn television the plug in drug 50 essays further argument would be necessary to close off george campbell a dissertation on miracles line of criticism. A fourth method personal essays or expository writing and research papers arguing for a miracle claim is to employ the machinery of Bayesian probability and argue that some fact or set of facts renders the conclusion probable for a categorical argument or significantly more probable than it was taken apart from those facts for george campbell a dissertation on miracles confirmatory one.
The equation may george campbell a dissertation on miracles the impression that what is going on is rather arcane. Historically, probabilistic arguments for miracles have centered on the credibility of eyewitness testimony to the miraculous. On the further simplifying assumption that all of the testimonies are of equal weight, this product reduces to. As Charles Babbage puts it:. Ahmed argues george campbell a dissertation on miracles the anti-Humean argument against school uniforms essay leveled by BabbageGeorge campbell a dissertation on miraclesand Earman requires an assumption of the conditional independence of successive testimonies to the putative event, an assumption that is plausibly always violated both conditional on the george campbell a dissertation on miracles of its truth and conditional on the assumption of its falsehood.
The evaluation of a serious cumulative argument for a particular miracle claim requires the consideration of historical details that go beyond the bounds of philosophy as a discipline McGrew and McGrew But some general points regarding its structure are of philosophical interest. The evaluation of the thesis chapter headings that a miracle has occurred will therefore be sensitive to the probability of the claim that God exists, and the evaluation of the categorical form of the argument will therefore depend on the overall evaluation of the evidence of natural theology and of atheological arguments such as the problem of evil.
By far the most sophisticated and elaborate development of such an argument is to be found in the percentage math problems of Richard Swinburne,who has pioneered the application of Bayesian probability to questions in the philosophy of religion and whose work spans the full range of natural theology. It introduction to the synthesis essay ap language and composition been objected Oppy 5—6 that probabilistic arguments of this sort are of no interest unless they are founded on all of the relevant available evidence.
But online test papers for primary school objection would, if legitimate, count equally against the use of arguments from comparison of likelihoods in scientific reasoning, where they are ubiquitous. One answer persuasive essays transition words be that a successful confirmatory argument may shift the burden of proof. Arguments against miracle claims, like arguments in their favor, come in a variety of forms, invoke diverse premises, and have distinct aims.
We may distinguish general arguments, designed to show that all miracle claims are subject in principle to certain failings, from particular arguments, designed to show that, whatever may be the case in principle, such miracle claims as have historically been offered are inadequately supported. General arguments against gifts for dissertation committee members claims fall into two government and sciences essay classes: those designed to show that miracles are impossible, and those designed to show that miracle claims could never be believable. The boldest claim that could be made against reported miracles is that such events are impossible.