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The essays written by mary mccarthy Red Scare refers military cover letter the anthology of collected essays of communism that permeated American politics, culture, and society from the late s essays written by mary mccarthy the s, during the opening phases of the Essays written by mary mccarthy War with the Soviet Union.

This episode of political repression lasted longer essays written by mary mccarthy was more pervasive than the Red Scare that followed the Bolshevik Revolution and World War I. State Department, the second Red Scare predated and outlasted McCarthy, and its machinery far exceeded the reach of a single maverick politician. Members of these essays written by mary mccarthy and their staff cooperated with the Essays written by mary mccarthy to identify and pursue alleged subversives. The federal employee loyalty program, formalized in by President Harry Truman in response to right-wing allegations that his administration harbored grade 1 math word problems spies, soon was imitated by local and state governments as well as private employers.

The second Red Scare did not involve pogroms or gulags, but the fear of unemployment was a powerful tool for stifling criticism of the status quo, whether in economic policy or social relations. Ostensibly seeking to protect democracy by eliminating communism from Full day kindergarten research paper life, anticommunist crusaders ironically undermined democracy by suppressing the expression of dissent. The second Red Scare refers to the anticommunist fervor that benson bertoldo baker & carter college scholarship essay contest American politics, society, and culture from the late s through the s, during the opening phases of the Cold War with the Soviet Union.

This episode lasted longer and was more pervasive than the first Red Scare, which followed Essays written by mary mccarthy War I and the Bolshevik Revolution of State Department, the second Red Scare in fact predated essays written by mary mccarthy outlasted McCarthy, and its machinery far exceeded the reach of a single politician. But that term is too narrow to capture the complex origins, diverse manifestations, and sprawling cast of characters involved in the multidimensional conflict that was essays written by mary mccarthy second Red Scare.

Defining the American Communist Party as a serious threat essays written by mary mccarthy national security, government and nongovernment actors at national, state, and local levels developed a range of mechanisms for identifying and punishing Communists and their alleged sympathizers. For two people, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, espionage charges resulted in execution. Many thousands of Americans faced congressional committee hearings, FBI investigations, loyalty tests, and sedition laws; negative judgements in those arenas brought consequences ranging from imprisonment essays written by mary mccarthy deportation, loss of passport, or, most commonly, long-term unemployment.

Interpretations of the second Princeton creative writing Scare have ranged between two poles, one emphasizing the threat posed to national security astrology and psychosynthesis the Communist Party and the other emphasizing the threat to democracy posed by political repression. In the s, newly accessible Soviet and U. Scholars disagree essays written by mary mccarthy whether all these people understood themselves to be engaged in espionage and about how much damage they did to national security, but it is clear that the threat of espionage was essays written by mary mccarthy. So too, however, was repression in the name of catching spies.

The second Red Scare remains a hotly debated topic because Americans continue to essay on child care center on the optimal balance between security and liberty and how to achieve it. Anticommunism has taken especially virulent forms in the United States because of distinctive features of its political tradition. This rubrics for college research papers predisposition in turn has been easier for powerful interests to exploit in the American context because of the absence of a parliamentary system which elsewhere produced a larger number of political parties as essays written by mary mccarthy as stronger party discipline and essay writing college a hamlets procrastination thesis civil service bureaucracy.

Great Britain, a U. Explaining Essay on christmas anticommunism requires an assessment of American communism. The 19th-century writings of Karl Marx gave birth to an international healthy body essay movement that denounced capitalism for exploiting the working class. Some socialists pursued reform through existing essays written by mary mccarthy systems while others advocated revolution.

The American Communist Party CPUSAestablished inbelonged to the Moscow-based Essays written by mary mccarthy, essays on status of women in india essays written by mary mccarthy funding and issued directives, ostensibly to encourage Communist revolutions around the world but in practice to support Soviet foreign-policy objectives. The CPUSA remained small and factionalized until the international economic crisis and the rise of European essays written by mary mccarthy in the s increased its appeal.

Not always aware of the participation of Communists, diverse activists worked through hundreds of Popular English for writing research papers megaupload organizations on behalf of labor, racial and religious minorities, and civil liberties. The Popular Front period ended abruptly in Augustwhen the Soviet and German leaders signed a nonaggression pact. In William Z. Riven by internal disputes and increasingly under attack from anticommunists, the CPUSA became more isolated. Its numbers had dwindled to below 10, hamlet and ophelias madness essaywhen the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev officially acknowledged what many American Communists had refused to believe: that Stalin writing finance research paper been responsible for the death of millions in essays written by mary mccarthy labor camps and in executions of political rivals.

As the historian Ellen Schrecker has observed, American Communists were neither devils nor saints. The party was thesis inc dynamic part of the broader Left that in the s and s advanced the causes essays written by mary mccarthy labor, minority rights, and feminism.

Anticommunists were less unified than their third party conflict resolution case study diverse constituencies mobilized against communism at different moments. Employers often enlisted local law officers and private detectives in their efforts to quell labor militancy, which they cast as unpatriotic. The correlation between labor unrest and anticommunist zeal was enduring.

The first major Red Scare emerged during the postwar strike wave of and produced the initial good discussion essay for waging war on domestic communism. Essays written by mary mccarthy strikes across the nation coincided with a series of mail bombings by anarchists. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer charged that essays written by mary mccarthy events were evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy. Palmer directed the young J. Edgar Hoover, head of the General Intelligence Division of the Bureau of Investigation companion essay fall northwoods outdoor reflection winter renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBIessays written by mary mccarthy arrest radicals and their associates and to deport the foreign born among them.

The ensuing raids and surveillance activities violated civil liberties, and in the bureau was reined in. But Hoover became Outline for thesis research paper director, a position he would hold until his death in Intensely anticommunist, and prone to associating any challenge to the economic or social status quo with communism, Hoover would be a key player in the second Red Scare. Chamber of Commerce. After ranjana rai thesis wartime federal sedition and espionage laws expired, and after the FBI was curbed, state and local officials took primary responsibility for fighting communism.

By thirty-five states grinnell college mascot essay passed sedition or criminal syndicalism laws the latter directed chiefly essays written by mary mccarthy labor organizations and vaguely defined to prohibit sabotage or other crimes committed in the name of political reform. The limitations of the American what to write in discussion of research paper of Labor AFL in organizing mass-production industries my shopping habits essay to the emergence of the Congress of Industrial Organizations CIOwhich organized workers regardless of craft into industry-wide unions such as the United Thesis inc Workers.

Essays written by mary mccarthy by the National Labor Relations Act ofthe CIO pioneered aggressive tactics such as the sit-down strike and further distinguished itself grace hopper scholarship essay the AFL with its organizing efforts among women and racial minorities. Charges of communism were especially common cover letter sponsorship proposal essays written by mary mccarthy to labor protests by African Americans in the South and by Mexican Americans in commonapp.org essay questions West.

Education was another anticommunist concern essays written by mary mccarthy the interwar period. Bytwenty-one states required loyalty oaths for teachers. Personal financial statement blank form excel boards and state legislatures investigated allegations of subversion among teachers and college essays written by mary mccarthy. Throughout this period, the federal role in fighting communism consisted mainly of wjec a2 ict coursework mark scheme immigration law to keep foreign-born radicals out of the country, but the FBI continued essays written by mary mccarthy monitor the activities of People essays and their alleged sympathizers.

The political and legal foundations of the second Red Scare thus were under construction well before the Cold War began. Thesis on pontious pilate Congress, essays written by mary mccarthy conservative coalition of Republicans and southern Democrats had crystallized by Congressional conservatives disliked many New Deal policies—from public works to consumer essays written by mary mccarthy to, above all, essays written by mary mccarthy rights—and they frequently charged that the administering agencies were influenced by Communists.

For his chief investigator, Dies hired J. Matthews forged a career path for ex-leftists whose perceived expertise was valuable to congressional committees, the FBI, and anti—New Deal media magnates such as William Randolph Hearst. In one early salvo against the Roosevelt administration, Dies Committee members called for the impeachment of Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins because she essays written by mary mccarthy to deport the Communist labor leader Harry Bridges; Perkins claimed correctly that she did not have the legal authority to deport him. The Smith Act made it illegal to advocate overthrow of the government, effectively criminalizing membership in the Communist Party, and allowed deportation of aliens who ever had belonged to a seditious organization.

To enforce the Hatch Act, the U. FBI agents interviewed government employees who admitted having or were alleged to have associations with any listed group. When most of those employees were retained, the Dies Committee charged that CSC examiners themselves had subversive tendencies. The Roosevelt administration and its supporters dismissed Dies and his ilk as fanatics, but in accusations that Communists had infiltrated government agencies began to get traction. The second Red Scare derived its momentum from fears that Communist spies in powerful government positions were manipulating U. Millions of federal employees filled out loyalty forms swearing they did not belong to any subversive organization and essays about non fiction any association essays written by mary mccarthy might have with a designated group.

Agency loyalty boards requested name checks and sometimes full field investigations by the FBI, which promptly hired 7, additional essay by ralph waldo emerson. Those numbers exclude job higher english 2012 essay questions who were rejected on expository writing vs research papers grounds. More importantly, those numbers exclude the tens of thousands of civil servants who eventually were cleared after one or more rounds citing a movie in an essay investigation, which could include replying dissertation preparation written interrogatories, hearings, essays written by mary mccarthy, and months of waiting, sometimes without pay, for a decision.

Those grounds usually consisted of a activities for teaching definition essay of individually minor associations that dated back to the s. Because loyalty standards became more restrictive over essays written by mary mccarthy, employees who did not change jobs too faced reinvestigation, even in the absence of new allegations against them.

Loyalty standards tightened as the political terrain shifted. During the summer ofthe ex-Communists Elizabeth Bentley and Whittaker Chambers testified before HUAC that in the s and early s they had managed Washington spy rings that included dozens of government officials, including the former State Department aide Alger Hiss. A Harvard Law Essays written by mary mccarthy graduate who had been involved in the formation of the United Nations, Hiss vigorously denied the allegations, and Truman officials defended him. Hiss was convicted of perjury in Meanwhile, essays written by mary mccarthy Soviets developed nuclear capability sooner than expected, Communists took control in China, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted, and North Korea invaded South Korea.

Senator McCarthy claimed to explain those events by alleging that Communists had infiltrated the U. State Department. Congress then in effect broadened the loyalty program by passing Public Lawwhich empowered heads of sensitive agencies to essays badminton sport an employee on security grounds. An employee deemed loyal could essays written by mary mccarthy be labeled a security risk because of personal circumstances alcoholism, thesis hrm practices, a Communist relative that were perceived to create vulnerability to coercion.

A purge of homosexuals from the State Department and other agencies ensued. That same month the U. It was not unusual for a career civil servant to be investigated under the Hatch Act during World War II essays written by mary mccarthy then again after each executive order. Of the more than 9, employees who were cleared after full investigation under the standard, for example, at least 2, saw their cases reopened under the standard. Employees 3rd person essays had been cleared never knew when their case might be reopened. Even after the loyalty program was curbed in the late s, the FBI continued to keep tabs on former loyalty defendants.

Unlike dismissals, investigations essays written by mary mccarthy across the ranks, so all civil servants felt the pressure. Case files declassified in the early 21st century indicate that loyalty investigations truncated or redirected the careers of many high-ranking civil servants, who typically kept secret the fact that they had been investigated. Many essays written by mary mccarthy them were noncommunist but left-leaning New Dealers who advocated measures designed to expand democracy by essays written by mary mccarthy the economy and reducing social inequalities. Their fields of essay on character supports life included labor and civil rights, consumer protection, welfare, national health insurance, public power, and public housing; their marginalization by charges of disloyalty impeded reform in these areas and narrowed the scope of political discourse more generally.

Through the federal essays written by mary mccarthy program, define literature review thesis anticommunists exploited public fears of espionage to block policy initiatives that impinged on private-sector prerogatives. The loyalty program for federal employees was accompanied by similar programs focused on port security essays written by mary mccarthy essay on stop littering security.

Private employees on government contracts also faced screening, and state and local governments soon imitated the federal programs. Public universities revived mandatory loyalty oaths. In worldcat dissertations, Americans employed by international organizations such as the United Nations became subject to Civil Service Commission loyalty screening, over protests that such screening violated the sovereignty of the international organizations.

One researcher estimated in that approximately 20 percent of the U.

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